Wednesday, 15 February 2012

Acids and Bases - Part 1

  • Arrhenius
    acid: generates [H+] in solution
    base: generates [OH-] in solution
    normal Arrhenius equation: acid + base <---> salt + water
    example: HCl + NaOH <---> NaCl + H2
  • Bronsted-Lowery:
    acid: anything that donates a [H+] (proton donor)
    base: anything that accepts a [H+] (proton acceptor)
    normal Bronsted-Lowery equation: acid + base <---> acid + base
    example: HNO2 + H2O <---> NO2- + H3O+
    Each acid has a conjugate base and each base has a conjugate acid. These conjugate pairs only differ by a proton. In this example: HNO2 is the acid, H2O is the base, NO2- is the conj. base, and H3O+ is the conj. acid.
  • Lewis:
    acid: accepts an electron pair
    base: donates an electron pair
    The advantage of this theory is that many more reactions can be considered acid-base reactions because they do not have to occur in solution.

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